TV, Programming Cytocompatibility of calcium silicate-based sealers in a three-dimensional cell culture model. Specifically, defects in AH Plus adhesion to the canal walls can occur due to retained dental moisture [14]. Donnermeyer D, Dornseifer P, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. The push-out bond strength of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers. Evaluation of the filling ability of artificial lateral canals using calcium silicate-based and epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers and two gutta-percha filling techniques. 10th ed. [23], conventional resin-based sealers showed better sealing after 7 days. Chronoteve (Bearbi) • Central Media • ITV • ENTV Kids, Defunct/Former Premiere Holdings/CubenRocks assets: Camilleri J, Montesin FE, Brady K, Sweeney R, Curtis RV, Ford TR. Notes: Overall, conventional epoxy resin-based sealers show similar or significantly lower leakage than calcium silicate-based sealers. Human dental pulp stem cells also showed significantly increased mineralization in the presence of BioRoot RCS [88]. It also premiered brand new series like Thunderbirds Are Go, Sailor Moon Crystal and Looped. Wang Z, Shen Y, Haapasalo M. Dentin extends the antibacterial effect of endodontic sealers against, Alsubait S, Albader S, Alajlan N, Alkhunaini N, Niazy A, Almahdy A. However, the authors concluded that both sealers satisfied the ISO 6876: 2012 standard [25]. Editora Wágner • Revistas Wágner • Manga Wágner, Record labels: However, after 7 days, most sealers had lost their antibacterial effect [71]. Conversely, using NaOCl for the final irrigation creates an alkaline environment that is suitable for calcium silicate cement hydration and improves the sealing ability of calcium silicate-based sealers [23]. Radio Contact 2000 | Radio Contact Gold | Radio Contact Kids | Radio Contact Lounge | Radio Contact Love | Radio Contact Mix | Radio Contact Plus | Radio Contact Urban | Radio Contact Christmas | Radio Contact Summertime, Atresmedia TelevisiónAntena 3 (HD, 4K; Other) | laSexta (HD) | Neox (HD) | Nova (HD) | Mega (HD) | Atreseries HD Effects of EDTA on the hydration mechanism of mineral trioxide aggregate. CubenRocks Channel 2 • CubenRocks Comedy • Music! On May 2003, Canal J will be transmitted by French digital terrestrial TNT. Kidinator Studios: Kidinator Films J Endod 2007;33:31–33. Int J Artif Organs 2010;33:676–681. RTL Radio Lëtzebuerg | RTL Radio (RTL - Die besten Hits aller Zeiten | RTL - UKW 93.3 & 97.0 | RTL - Weihnachtsradio) | L'essentiel radio (25 %) | Eldoradio (74.8%), Television channels: Water sorption and solubility are related to dimensional stability. Novel calcium zirconate silicate cement biomineralize and seal root canals. Kim Y, Kim BS, Kim YM, Lee D, Kim SY. 3 Co-owned between Quest International Television and Quest Communications. Because of the hydrophilic environment in root canals, water resorption and solubility of root canal sealers are important factors contributing to their stability. It broadcasts content from an on-demand library based on the child profile. Radio 538 | Juize | Radio 10 Gold | Yorin FM | RTL 4 Radio | RTL Radio | RTL Rock | RTL Rockradio | Radio Happy RTL | RTL FM | RTL24 | TV10 | Veronica | Veronica FM | Kink FM | Slam! Generally, calcium silicate sealers have shown higher cell viability than AH Plus (Table 5). Film: White Cat Productions (Other) • Artimations (Blue Media • HeyYou Entertainment) • Cheese! Odontology 2019;107:421–436. Ballullaya SV, Vinay V, Thumu J, Devalla S, Bollu IP, Balla S. Stereomicroscopic dye leakage measurement of six different root canal sealers. However, it still has limitations, including possible mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, inflammatory response, and hydrophobicity. M6 (HD, Other) | W9 (HD) | 6ter (HD) | Gulli1 (HD) Physical properties and biocompatibility of an injectable calcium-silicate-based root canal sealer: Root canal sealers reviewed in this article and their chemical compositions, Dimensional stability of calcium silicate sealers in the articles included in this review, Sealing ability of the calcium silicate sealers in the articles included in this review, Push-out bond strength of the calcium silicate sealers in the articles included in this review, Biocompatibility of the calcium silicate sealers in the articles included in this review, Bioactivity of the calcium silicate sealers in the articles included in this review, Publication Ethics & Malpractice Statement. Otherkind: El Kadsre 2Joint venture with The Walt Disney Company. Only 1 study showed lower water sorption of calcium silicate sealers compared to conventional epoxy resin sealers [25]. The leakage of calcium silicate-based sealers using different obturation techniques has also been compared. RTC: RTC Europe • RTC British Isles • RTC Nordic • RTC Cubentonian Lee BN, Hong JU, Kim SM, Jang JH, Chang HS, Hwang YC, Hwang IN, Oh WM. Sealer properties are affected by the application of heat during warm vertical compaction. International Organization of Standardization. Push-out bond strength is used to evaluate interfacial bond strength between the root canal sealer and radicular dentin [50, 51]. Canal J is a Gauese TV channel owned by GauLife Entertainment. On 13 January 2015, Canal J launched its own high-definition simulcast feed. Lyf: El Kadsre (Other) Poggio C, Dagna A, Ceci M, Meravini MV, Colombo M, Pietrocola G. Solubility and pH of bioceramic root canal sealers: a comparative study. Anti-inflammatory and osteogenic effects of calcium silicate-based root canal sealers. Hotel Ba-Zing • Parques Wágner • Carwardine Parks • Buwalda's Restaurant, Other properties: Please join Hélène Etzi (Country Manager, The Walt Disney Company France), Orion Ross (Vice President, Animation, Digital & Acquisitions, Disney EMEA) and Caterina Gonnelli (Director, Acquisitions and Co-Productions, Disney EMEA). These crystals can reduce marginal gaps and porosity, and increase the retention of the cement [42, 43]. The Edge | The Rock | The Sound | Radio Live, Free-to-air television channels:Capital TV (Other) | CapitalTwo Int Endod J 2003;36:629–635. The Lane: India, China and Southeast Asia 2Co-owned with Glitch Productions, CPN Holdings, FBN Holdings and Sega Sammy Holdings (through Sega Holdings) owns each 25% stake, Aberic Holdings owns 5% stake and TMK Corporation (through Quest) and Qube Communications owns 10% stake each of FBN Corporation, Telecommunciations and television providers: Lee SJ, Monsef M, Torabinejad M. Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate for repair of lateral root perforations. Pawar SS, Pujar MA, Makandar SD. ZEBC: Alola • Canada1 • Robloxia • Danland • El Kadsre However, it cannot be concluded which calcium silicate sealer is the most biocompatible, although BioRoot RCS could be considered more biocompatible than iRoot SP, MTA Fillapex, and Endoseal MTA within the limitations of this review article [32, 59, 60, 61, 63]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:946–951. Sousa CJ, Montes CR, Pascon EA, Loyola AM, Versiani MA. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The constitution of mineral trioxide aggregate. It is aimed at children older than 7 years old. RKO Atlanta Resort • RKO Charlotte Resort • RKO New York Resort • RKO Los Angeles Resort • RKO Buffalo Resort • RKO London Resort • RKO Sydney Resort • RKO Amsterdam Resort • RKO Beijing Resort • RKO Nijmegenn Resort • RKO Hampton Beach Resort • RKO Bryson City Resort, Quest Real Estate HoldingsGM Supermalls • Elkacity • Quest Meyraetski Arena • Quest Taugaran Arena, Quest CinemasPremium Pass • Solar Cinemas, CubenRocks TheatersLekidar Cinemas (Vertinelia) • Oasina Cinemas • Cubentonia Theatres • Harmony Cinemas (Harmonia) • CubenRocks Theaters Premuim Class, Restaurants and cafés:LJS International (Piramca • Israel) • Xandria Cafe • Ben's Restaurants Foopiia • Almost Pizza • RKO Restaurants (Canada • Israel • New Zealand), Quest Theme ParksWarner MovieWorld El Kadsre • Oak Acres Park • XPZone • CubenRocks Roller Park • CubenRocks Honolulu Resort • Laserium Park Los Angeles, Video Games, Electronics and 3D AnimationCubenRocks Interactive • Ludo (Ludo New York • Ludo Fresno • Ludo Leipzig • Ludo Modena • Ludo Osaka • Ludo Adelaide) • Moveo3D • Seishin • Libum Electronics (Libum Q7 • Libum Games (Libum Black • Singularity Games)), Other assetsHollywood Video • RKO Film Festival/CubenRocks Film Festival • RKO Digital Cinema Group (RKO Digital 3D • RKO HD • Spicy 3D • Spicy HD) • Salovaara & Kosch Group • Qualis Music Group (List of labels) • EME F1 Racing Team • Noroeste Productions (Mercury Street Productions • Greeny Phatom Live) • RKO Shopping Malls • RKO Physical Therapy • RKO Hotels • RKO Theaters, Cable television network: Glitch Channel2 | The Studios | Groovy 107.9 TV | WorldTerebi | The Meme Channel | TV Bay (88%), Television stations: DZJP-TV and DWQO-TV Manila, Radio stations: FBN Radyo Ito 682 and Groovy 107.9 Manila | YOM To the Max! 3Joint venture with Groupe TF1 and France Télévisions. Furthermore, the leakage of calcium silicate sealers and conventional resin sealers may change over time. In November 1992, the launch of CanalSatellite analogique made Canal J available throughout all of France, as it was picked up by the provider as one of its seven channels offered to its customers. The effect of the final irrigant on the antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers. Canal J is French television network owned by Groupe M6. J Endod 2018;44:1736–1740. J Clin Exp Dent 2018;10:e120–e126. For iRoot SP, all bacteria were eradicated directly after contact, whereas for AH Plus, the viable bacteria were significantly reduced and eradicated within 5–20 minutes. Animation Studios | Plotagon Movies | Plotagon Television, Notes: Home Entertainment: Ultra Video and Ultra Home Entertainment • CNP Studios Global Entertainment, Quest Media&Entertainment Private Networks: The solubility standards of root canal sealers are well described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6876: 2012, according to which sealers should exhibit a solubility of less than 3% weight loss after water immersion [26]. On September 2015 – 2016 used the GauLife Entertainment bumper is begin to moment. Please contribute to the DFW by creating a page for this channel, company, etc. There were only 3 articles about the antibacterial activity of Endosequence BC; therefore, further evaluation is needed. Geneva: International Organization of Standardization; 2012. Clinically, sealers are inserted into root canals before setting; thus, it is possible that toxic components are released into the tissue [60, 62]. Several studies have considered AH Plus to be the gold standard for sealers, due to its resorption resistance and dimensional stability [6, 7, 8, 9]. CubenRocks Channel: El Kadsre • Vicnora, Channels operated under license: TV Bayern Live, Radio stations: In several articles, BioRoot RCS and iRoot SP lost more than 3% weight after water immersion [24, 28, 31, 32]. In a study by Dabaj et al. Take part in the press conference of the presentation of this study. TVNZ America: TV One • TV2 Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Puffy AmiYumi: YingYangia • InfinityLand Camilleri J. Sealers and warm gutta-percha obturation techniques. Viapiana R, Moinzadeh AT, Camilleri L, Wesselink PR, Tanomaru Filho M, Camilleri J. Porosity and sealing ability of root fillings with gutta-percha and BioRoot RCS or AH Plus sealers. | RTL Lounge Radio, Television channels Biocompatibility of three new calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers on human periodontal ligament stem cells. MTA Fillapex was found to be more soluble than AH Plus even after setting [33]. Holland R, de Souza V, Nery MJ, Otoboni Filho JA, Bernabé PF, Dezan Júnior E. Reaction of rat connective tissue to implanted dentin tubes filled with mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide. On the yesterday, Canal J was added from Canal Satellite and was time-shared with Canal Jimmy. Co-owned with Seagrounds Financial Group (17%), Pogobon Media & Entertainment: Grossmann suggested that excellent sealing ability, dimensional stability, slow setting time, insolubility, and biocompatibility are required for an ideal root canal sealer [3]. As part of this new structure, Canal J was the first channel in 1988 to be available to all television providers for cable and community antena through the Telecom 1C satellite system. Int Endod J 2010;43:889–901. Güven EP, Taşlı PN, Yalvac ME, Sofiev N, Kayahan MB, Sahin F. Loison-Robert LS, Tassin M, Bonte E, Berbar T, Isaac J, Berdal A, Simon S, Fournier BP. CubenRocks Channel (Other • HD • 3D) • Pus4 • Glare! Assessment of a new root canal sealer's apical sealing ability. Camps J, Jeanneau C, El Ayachi I, Laurent P, About I. Bioactivity of a calcium silicate-based endodontic cement (BioRoot RCS): interactions with human periodontal ligament cells. Sad Face Studios: EnzoTV Therefore, the physical properties of root canal sealers have a major impact on the quality of the root canal filling. The main component of MTA Fillapex is salicylate resin, which has shown considerable cytotoxicity and prolongation of setting [68], contributing to increased dissolution of toxic materials. As shown in Table 3 the sealing ability of calcium silicate sealers varies among studies due to differences in experimental methods and materials. TV blocks: Lim ES, Park YB, Kwon YS, Shon WJ, Lee KW, Min KS. Canal J is a French pay television channel dedicated to children's programming. On 1 February 2019, M6 Group entered negotiations to acquire the television unit of Lagardère Active including Canal J. AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) resolved the problem seen in AH 26-leaching formaldehyde during setting [4, 5]. The favorable biological properties of calcium silicate sealers result from their solubility or water absorption, but these factors can decrease dimensional stability, with a negative impact on the sealing quality of root canals [20, 21, 22]. The same was done with SFR ADSL. On 25 May 2019, the television pole from Lagardère Active was acquired by M6 Group. Lou Scheimer Productions • Amazin' Productions • Lexington Animation Studios B.V. • Trickster Animation • Adnan Company • Mental Men Productions, North America: PPV Studios Los Angeles • PPV Studios New York • PPV Studios Miami • PPV Heart of Texas Studios • Martin Berger Recording • PPV Studios B.C. Most calcium silicate sealers showed antibacterial effects against E. faecalis (Table 6) [32, 71, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82]. Despite the similar chemical characteristics of calcium silicate-based sealers, they showed different cytocompatibility [64]. The channel broadcasts animated and live-action series and anime programmings. A root canal sealer should display appropriate physicochemical and biological properties. Zhang W, Li Z, Peng B. Braz Oral Res 2014;28:S1806-83242014000100257. Epoxy resin-based sealers are currently widely used, and several studies have considered AH Plus to be the gold-standard sealer. Taraslia V, Anastasiadou E, Lignou C, Keratiotis G, Agrafioti A, Kontakiotis EG. Gandolfi MG, Prati C. MTA and F-doped MTA cements used as sealers with warm gutta-percha. The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry. 5Acquired by Groupe M6 from Lagardère. With these excellent properties of calcium silicate-based cements, endodontic sealers based on calcium silicate have been introduced. WarnerMedia: CN Randomia • Adult Swim Japan. Since then, various sealers have been introduced to the market, making various claims but exhibiting small improvements. In addition, the long-term solubility of BioRoot RCS satisfied the ISO 6876: 2012 requirements when stored in PBS [22]. J Endod 2010;36:2000–2002. RKO Beverages Company: RKO Cola • RKO Diet Cola • RKO Cherry Cola • RKO Root Beer • RKO Orange Juice • RKO Milk • RKO Grape Soda • RKO Lemon and Lime Soda • RKO Water • Glug Light Beer. On the contrary, 2 separate investigations of EndoSequence BC reported differences in biocompatibility, even though the same mouse osteoblast cell line was used [69, 70]. Above all, calcium silicate-based sealers are bioactive and stimulate hard tissue formation, which is the main advantage of this material. J Endod 2016;42:1784–1788. RTL Aktuell | VOX Nachrichten | RTL Zwei News | n-tv Nachrichten | RTL Nachtjournal Puffy AmiYumi: Europe Even though the biological properties of calcium silicate-based sealers are adequate, further investigations into ways of improving their physical properties are needed. Although these physical properties of calcium silicate-based sealers meet ISO recommendations, they are either less favorable or comparable to conventional resin-based sealers. TV (Kids! Int Endod J 1997;30:297–306. joint venture with Mediengruppe Dr. Haas. Int Endod J 2008;41:977–986. 2 A joint venture with Quest Media&Entertainment Prime Radio [64], MTA Fillapex enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, in contrast to previous studies; these findings were suggested to be due to a compositional change in the re-launched material, with calcium tungstate substituted for bismuth oxide. These properties have been assessed in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and mineralization-related gene expression [58, 70, 87, 88]. Zhou HM, Shen Y, Zheng W, Li L, Zheng YF, Haapasalo M. Physical properties of 5 root canal sealers. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: confocal laser-scanning microscope study. However, calcium silicate-based sealers showed better sealing at 4 weeks after setting. Jean-Claude 25/08/2019 23:32. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of calcium silicate- and epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers against. Asia: TBA, Other labels: 4 Co-owned with Grupo Globo On 2011, Canal J switched to 16:9 image format. and some prefectures of Gau. Sealing ability is an important property of a sealer, as one of the goals of root canal therapy is to obtain a bacteria-tight seal of the canals. Ex-CNP Corporation channels (CNP Encore • CNPBe • CNP News • CNP Sports • CNP Movies • CNP Power) • TV5 (Schaalberg) • K3 (Pubog) • PBS & Viacom Chinese Channel • PBS & Viacom Chinese InfoNews • The CW Viva Cinema • Ultra Cinema (Family • Plus • 5 Star) • NZ4K • The Six Network (Australia) • Ultra Edu • AVT • Independent Television (Sakaria) • TvQ1 • ZEBC Panasia • CPN 4 (Ringia) • Light TV (Taugaran)12 • CPN 16 (Scratchia), International versions of CPN channels: Calcium silicate-based sealers display improved dislocation resistance, as they micromechanically bond to dentin, which decreases the gap at the interface [52]. Others: D.N. On 13th April 1989, Canal J was rebranded and the new logo was changed and the new broadcast format for rest of cartoons, series, movies and documentaries. Disbanded CNP Hub (Philippines) • CNP Sport (CNP Racing) • CNP News (CNP Breakfast • CNP Newslens) • The BBB Group • Islands-FEN • YG SLN! Sealing efficacy of a single-cone root filling after post space preparation. Blk: Europe TV block) • Horizon Video • São Paulo Video (Brazil) • The Albert Network • Be4 • CBBC on The Cartoon Channel (The Cartoon Channel block) • Okto on Pengalaman (Pengalaman block) • Objectmation Television, Former Pira TV Group channels: Telecast Inc. (worldwide) • KTY Telecommunications • KTY USA Inc. • KTY FiOS • KTY Puerto Rico • Docomo Northeast 1 • KTY Broadband, Quest Communications: Afrabcom • Axiom (Finland) • Kadsrecom • Sinclair Internet & Entertainment • Volar • Hangar Telecom and CPN Telecom • Alexonian Digital Broadcasting 2 • Vodacom 3, Production companies: On August 26, 2019, Canal J rounded its 2015 logo to make way for a brand new identity. Influence of warm vertical compaction technique on physical properties of root canal sealers. Most studies analyzed in this review that assessed the cytotoxicity of sealers used mouse and human fibroblast cells or human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) [57, 58, 59, 60, 61]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:e79–e82. In: Basic dental materials. Television channels: Gulli Middle East and Africa, Russia:1 Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Hydrophilicity reduces the contact angle of the sealer and increases sealer penetration into the dentinal tubule [71]. EmoTV: El Kadsre • Francophone Canada Regional channels: J Endod 2017;43:633–637. Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea. TV (HD), Atresmedia RadioOnda Cero | Europa FM | Melodía FM, ProgramsAntena 3 Noticias | laSexta Noticias | Neox Kidz | Espejo Público | Más Vale Tarde | Tu Cara Me Suena | Pesadilla en la Cocina | ¿Te lo vas a comer? SBS (licensed to Star Media): SBS El Kadsre • SBS 2 • SBS Food • SBS World Movies • NITV Asia: PPV Studios Tokyo • PPV Studios Beijing 4 • PPV Studios Kaohsiung • PPV Studios Hong Kong • PPV Studios Singapore • PPV Studios Delhi The quality of single cone and laterally compacted gutta-percha fillings in small and curved root canals as evidenced by bidirectional radiographs and fluid transport measurements. The osteogenic potential of calcium silicate sealers seems to be higher than that of AH Plus. No votes so far! The sealers included in this review are outlined in Table 1. TMK Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan | TMK Korea | TMK Japan | TMK Thailand | TMK India | TMK Philippines | TMK Indonesia | TMK East Timor | TMK-ANS | TMKProd Asia, Q Media Group AMC Networks International LATAM Zoytex (10%), AMCNI LATAM channels (AMC • elgourmet • Más Chic • Film&Arts • Sundance TV • Europa Europa • TVCortos) (distribution to Zoytex only) • Canal Family • Family CHRGD Zoytex • Minimax Zoytex • Qubo Zoytex • Canal Panda Zoytex, Other channels: Iacono F, Gandolfi MG, Huffman B, Sword J, Agee K, Siboni F, Tay F, Prati C, Pashley D. Push-out strength of modified Portland cements and resins. Siboni F, Taddei P, Zamparini F, Prati C, Gandolfi MG. Properties of BioRoot RCS, a tricalcium silicate endodontic sealer modified with povidone and polycarboxylate. In addition, a calcium silicate sealer showed similar leakage rates regardless of whether the single cone technique or the continuous wave technique was used [48]. joint venture with TVI, LEMAIRE ELECTRONICS and, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, digital terrestrial television system in France, "M6 begins bid for Lagardere's kids channels", Orange Cinéma Séries Max, Orange Cinéma Séries City, Orange Cinéma Séries Choc, & Orange Cinéma Séries Geants,,, Television channels and stations established in 1985, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2007, Articles needing additional references from October 2007, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2008, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 19:41. Its application to broadcast on the pay-digital terrestrial television system in France was approved by the Superior Council of the Audiovisual in May 2003. Heat can accelerate hydration and hydroxyapatite formation in calcium silicate-based root canal sealers [55]. For this reason, the cytotoxicity of sealers needs to be evaluated both before and after setting. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants. Biocompatibility is a requirement for a root canal sealer because the sealer directly contacts the periradicular tissue at the apical and lateral foramina of the root [2]. • Central News • Central Balita • Central Haban • Calcium hydroxide was introduced to endodontics by Herman in 1920 for pulpal repair. ZME Records: Quoner Management • The United States Informer • The Sunday Informer • The Sports Informer • The Economic Informer • RTS NewsChannel • RKO Television Stations Productions) • Droptwist Publishing • BEK • Global Communications • Five Mens Holdings • Vincorp (Vietnam) • Green Co. • World Media • Trans-Venus Holdings • Huang-Barnicles Corp (China) • Kanal 1 (Varkia) • Cable inc. • Malaworks Company Inc. (Ben's Pictures, The Malachi Channel, Ben's Interactive, Ben's Animation, Ben's Animation Japan, The Malachi Studios) • AVS4fans • RKO Gasoline • SpicyWeb • Spicy Interactive • Spicy Mobile • Bad Robot Digital (minority stake) • Stereorail Ventures. Discovery: Investigation Discovery (El Kadsre) Ganador: Middle East & Africa Calcium hydroxide diffusion helps to deliver the hydroxyl ion through the root canal, including the dentinal tubules, fins, isthmuses, lateral canals, and accessory canals, where residual microbes may be located [76]. DR America: DR1 • DR2 • DR3 • DR Ramasjang • DR K • DR Ultra